% RANSAC - Robustly fits a model to data with the RANSAC algorithm
%
% Usage:
%
% [M, inliers] = ransac(x, fittingfn, distfn, degenfn s, t, feedback, ...
% maxDataTrials, maxTrials)
%
% Arguments:
% x - Data sets to which we are seeking to fit a model M
% It is assumed that x is of size [d x Npts]
% where d is the dimensionality of the data and Npts is
% the number of data points.
%
% fittingfn - Handle to a function that fits a model to s
% data from x. It is assumed that the function is of the
% form:
% M = fittingfn(x)
% Note it is possible that the fitting function can return
% multiple models (for example up to 3 fundamental matrices
% can be fitted to 7 matched points). In this case it is
% assumed that the fitting function returns a cell array of
% models.
% If this function cannot fit a model it should return M as
% an empty matrix.
%
% distfn - Handle to a function that evaluates the
% distances from the model to data x.
% It is assumed that the function is of the form:
% [inliers, M] = distfn(M, x, t)
% This function must evaluate the distances between points
% and the model returning the indices of elements in x that
% are inliers, that is, the points that are within distance
% 't' of the model. Additionally, if M is a cell array of
% possible models 'distfn' will return the model that has the
% most inliers. If there is only one model this function
% must still copy the model to the output. After this call M
% will be a non-cell object representing only one model.
%
% degenfn - Handle to a function that determines whether a
% set of datapoints will produce a degenerate model.
% This is used to discard random samples that do not
% result in useful models.
% It is assumed that degenfn is a boolean function of
% the form:
% r = degenfn(x)
% It may be that you cannot devise a test for degeneracy in
% which case you should write a dummy function that always
% returns a value of 1 (true) and rely on 'fittingfn' to return
% an empty model should the data set be degenerate.
%
% s - The minimum number of samples from x required by
% fittingfn to fit a model.
%
% t - The distance threshold between a data point and the model
% used to decide whether the point is an inlier or not.
%
% feedback - An optional flag 0/1. If set to one the trial count and the
% estimated total number of trials required is printed out at
% each step. Defaults to 0.
%
% maxDataTrials - Maximum number of attempts to select a non-degenerate
% data set. This parameter is optional and defaults to 100.
%
% maxTrials - Maximum number of iterations. This parameter is optional and
% defaults to 1000.
%
% Returns:
% M - The model having the greatest number of inliers.
% inliers - An array of indices of the elements of x that were
% the inliers for the best model.
%
% If no solution could be found M and inliers are both returned as empty
% matrices and a warning reported.
%
% Note that the desired probability of choosing at least one sample free from
% outliers is set at 0.99. You will need to edit the code should you wish to
% change this (it should probably be a parameter)
%
% For an example of the use of this function see RANSACFITHOMOGRAPHY or
% RANSACFITPLANE
% References:
% M.A. Fishler and R.C. Boles. "Random sample concensus: A paradigm
% for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated
% cartography". Comm. Assoc. Comp, Mach., Vol 24, No 6, pp 381-395, 1981
%
% Richard Hartley and Andrew Zisserman. "Multiple View Geometry in
% Computer Vision". pp 101-113. Cambridge University Press, 2001
% Copyright (c) 2003-2013 Peter Kovesi
% Centre for Exploration Targeting
% The University of Western Australia
% peter.kovesi at uwa edu au
% http://www.csse.uwa.edu.au/~pk
%
% Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
% of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
% in the Software without restriction, subject to the following conditions:
%
% The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
% all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
%
% The Software is provided "as is", without warranty of any kind.
%
% May 2003 - Original version
% February 2004 - Tidied up.
% August 2005 - Specification of distfn changed to allow model fitter to
% return multiple models from which the best must be selected
% Sept 2006 - Random selection of data points changed to ensure duplicate
% points are not selected.
% February 2007 - Jordi Ferrer: Arranged warning printout.
% Allow maximum trials as optional parameters.
% Patch the problem when non-generated data
% set is not given in the first iteration.
% August 2008 - 'feedback' parameter restored to argument list and other
% breaks in code introduced in last update fixed.
% December 2008 - Octave compatibility mods
% June 2009 - Argument 'MaxTrials' corrected to 'maxTrials'!
% January 2013 - Separate code path for Octave no longer needed
function [M, inliers] = ransac(x, fittingfn, distfn, degenfn, s, t, feedback, ...
maxDataTrials, maxTrials)
% Test number of parameters
error ( nargchk ( 6, 9, nargin ) );
if nargin < 9; maxTrials = 1000; end;
if nargin < 8; maxDataTrials = 100; end;
if nargin < 7; feedback = 0; end;
[rows, npts] = size(x);
p = 0.99; % Desired probability of choosing at least one sample
% free from outliers (probably should be a parameter)
bestM = NaN; % Sentinel value allowing detection of solution failure.
trialcount = 0;
bestscore = 0;
N = 1; % Dummy initialisation for number of trials.
while N > trialcount
% Select at random s datapoints to form a trial model, M.
% In selecting these points we have to check that they are not in
% a degenerate configuration.
degenerate = 1;
count = 1;
while degenerate
% Generate s random indicies in the range 1..npts
% (If you do not have the statistics toolbox with randsample(),
% use the function RANDOMSAMPLE from my webpage)
if ~exist('randsample', 'file')
ind = randomsample(npts, s);
else
ind = randsample(npts, s);
end
% Test that these points are not a degenerate configuration.
degenerate = feval(degenfn, x(:,ind));
if ~degenerate
% Fit model to this random selection of data points.
% Note that M may represent a set of models that fit the data in
% this case M will be a cell array of models
M = feval(fittingfn, x(:,ind));
% Depending on your problem it might be that the only way you
% can determine whether a data set is degenerate or not is to
% try to fit a model and see if it succeeds. If it fails we
% reset degenerate to true.
if isempty(M)
degenerate = 1;
end
end
% Safeguard against being stuck in this loop forever
count = count + 1;
if count > maxDataTrials
warning('Unable to select a nondegenerate data set');
break
end
end
% Once we are out here we should have some kind of model...
% Evaluate distances between points and model returning the indices
% of elements in x that are inliers. Additionally, if M is a cell
% array of possible models 'distfn' will return the model that has
% the most inliers. After this call M will be a non-cell object
% representing only one model.
[inliers, M] = feval(distfn, M, x, t);
% Find the number of inliers to this model.
ninliers = length(inliers);
if ninliers > bestscore % Largest set of inliers so far...
bestscore = ninliers; % Record data for this model
bestinliers = inliers;
bestM = M;
% Update estimate of N, the number of trials to ensure we pick,
% with probability p, a data set with no outliers.
fracinliers = ninliers/npts;
pNoOutliers = 1 - fracinliers^s;
pNoOutliers = max(eps, pNoOutliers); % Avoid division by -Inf
pNoOutliers = min(1-eps, pNoOutliers);% Avoid division by 0.
N = log(1-p)/log(pNoOutliers);
end
trialcount = trialcount+1;
if feedback
fprintf('trial %d out of %d \r',trialcount, ceil(N));
end
% Safeguard against being stuck in this loop forever
if trialcount > maxTrials
warning( ...
sprintf('ransac reached the maximum number of %d trials',...
maxTrials));
break
end
end
if feedback, fprintf('\n'); end
if ~isnan(bestM) % We got a solution
M = bestM;
inliers = bestinliers;
else
M = [];
inliers = [];
warning('ransac was unable to find a useful solution');
end